Full title: [Regulatory T-cells: modern approaches to optimization of their numbers].
[Article in Russian]
Authors: [No authors listed]
Publication: Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk
Publication date: 2011
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are important components of the complex adaptive system of the body responsive to environmental challenges. Tregs ensure peripheral tolerance and play an important role in control of inflammatory reactions. Several subsets of Tregs have been described. Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs are recognized as a major subset of immune cells responsible for peripheral immune self-tolerance. Another subtype of Tregs is inducible. Such Tregs are generated in the periphery and realize their suppressive potential largely in the form of anti-inflammatory activity. The latter plays an important role in cooperation of three principal anti-inflammatory mechanisms that developed in the course of evolution: macrophages possessed of suppressive activity, Tregs, and stress hormones. Normally, all the three mechanisms of inflammation control are in equilibrium. However, the balance may be disturbed with ageing due to repeated episodes of stress and HPA axis activation. As a result, secretion of stress hormones coupled to antigen overload leads to Treg accumulation. In the course of time activation of the HPA axis is replaced by its inhibition manifested both as a decrease of the baseline cortisol level and a reduction of stress-induced cortisol response. Cortisol present in blood at low concentrations is no longer capable of controlling inflammation and Tregs become a principal mechanism of anti-inflammatory machinery. Superfluous Treg accumulation results in the development of functional somatic syndromes, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, and (in some patients) in the growth of tumours resulting from the suppression of anticancer immunity. On the other hand, the lack of adequate antigen loading in the childhood may delay Treg maturation. Allergy and asthma manifestations may be a consequence of such Treg insufficiency. Thus, both excess and deficiency of Tregs may be at the bottom of morbid conditions. The advances in modern pharmacology open up opportunities for developing new methods to control the Treg level.
PMID: 21950132 [PubMed - in process]
View the abstract in PubMed.